Definition, types of dyslexia, symptoms, treatment and brain training exercises
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The CogniFit brain training program for dyslexic children is a neuroscientific program specifically designed to improve mental agility in children with learning disorders, such as dyslexia. The training helps boost reading and writing skills, enhance concentration and learning agility.
The CogniFit program has been developed by a team of neuroscientists using the latest advances and discoveries in neuroscience. By associating those technologies with fun brain games, the CogniFit program makes each training session very effective.
CogniFit brain games for dyslexic children are designed to strengthen the neuronal network involved in the language processing. The program is an innovative and effective way to stimulate neuroplasticity in children while they have fun playing video games. The system starts by assessing the children’s cognitive health and then automatically presents them with the mental stimulation regimen that best suits their cognitive needs.
CogniFit exercises are individually tailored to every child’s age and unique profile, targeting specifically weak neural connections. While children are playing fun and engaging video games, they are actually enhancing their learning capacity, performance and mental agility with clinically validated exercises. These are critical skills they will need to succeed.
CogniFit specific training program has been clinically validated and proven by a wide range of schools, universities, and hospitals around the world.
Studies show that dyslexic students and adults with dyslexia see a significant increase in their cognitive development, working memory capacity, and reading performance (increased number of words per minute read correctly by 14.73%) when they train with CogniFit. In addition, the results lasted up to six months after the training, having a strongly positive effect on dyslexia.
What Exercises Can Help with Dyslexia?
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Strengthen the specific cognitive areas impaired with dyslexia.
What Type of Treatment is Available for Dyslexia?
Before any treatment is started, dyslexia must be diagnosed in the child. This is not an easy task as far too often schools do not have the right tools to detect dyslexia. Even when they do, they are not necessarily prepared to address the condition and the child may have to transfer to an appropriate school, if available in the area. Most of the time the burden is placed on parents. They have to be aware, pay attention, and detect the disorder as early as possible. Then, they have to take actions. The earlier the treatment starts, the better it is for the child, who gets better support and more tools to help overcome the disorder and prevent potential problems associated with the daily frustration and sense of failure they meet in the school environment.
How to treat dyslexia? There's no known way to definitely correct the underlying brain abnormality that causes the disorder. It’s a lifelong problem. It is critical to keep tracking the disorder on a daily basis and not wait for more serious symptoms to start treatment because you could be wasting valuable time. The most effective treatment of dyslexia is its early detection!
One of the many benefits of CogniFit scientifically validated program is the personalized brain training regimen to match every child’s unique cognitive needs. The clinically proven program also tracks the child’s cognitive performance and shows their evolution over 20+ core cognitive skills.
CogniFit ongoing evaluation helps detect impaired cognitive areas and adjusts the training regimen accordingly.
The CogniFit brain training program was developed by a team of scientists and neuropsychologists to specifically help improve the brain functions used in language processes. In the following image, you can see how a neural network may develop after continuously undergoing proper cognitive stimulation.
Neural network before stimulation Neural network after 2 weeks of stimilation Neural network after 2 months of stimulation
Scientific Validation: Studies that support CogniFit efficacy when treating children with dyslexia
CogniFit's personalized brain training program can help boost reading skills in college students with dyslexia
When dyslexic students trained with CogniFit personalized brain training program, their brain activity, working memory and reading performance were shown to increase significantly (increased number of words per minute read correctly by 14.73%) when they train with CogniFit. In addition, the results lasted up to six months after the training, having a strongly positive effect on dyslexia. See full study
What Is Dyslexia?
Dyslexia is much more common than we think since it affects more than 10% of the population. The dyslexia definition addresses the impairment of neurological origin that affects the learning process, making difficult to read, write, and generally the smooth decoding of any language codes or symbols.
When dyslexic people read, they practically focus all of their attention on decoding the sounds of the different letters and pronouncing every word. This effort causes a breakdown in their working memory, preventing the brain from allocating mental resources to other higher mental tasks such as reading comprehension.
Several studies define dyslexia as a neuronal connection deficit related to language processing. Indeed, dyslexic people have trouble visualizing words due to a dysfunction in their neuronal network between the brain regions associated with the language, also responsible for phonological processing.
Dyslexia may be passed down through families. It is very common that several family members are affected by the disorder. It occurs in children with normal intelligence, without any mental, physical or cultural problem and the difficulty to read do not affect any other cognitive skills. In addition, often times dyslexic people tend to sharpen their senses and develop high levels of intelligence and creativity.
Not all types of dyslexia have the same severity, but it is essential to diagnose and treat dyslexia as early as possible to avoid developmental problems, loss of self-esteem, frustration, and school failure.
What are the Signs of Dyslexia in Children?
Dyslexia in children can be detected as early as preschool. If not treated, the symptoms of dyslexia can persist beyond childhood, or adolescence, and may even last throughout adulthood.
Although every child is unique, children with dyslexia tend to start speaking later, have weaker listening comprehension, and have fewer words in their vocabulary compared with other children their age. Oftentimes, they confuse letters such as "b" and "d" (or “p” and “q”) or the orders of letters within words and lack concentration.
The lack of concentration can be due too cognitive fatigue. Indeed, since children with dyslexia have to work twice as hard to read and write, they get tired faster, and become absent-minded.
Brain activity during reading in ordinary readers Brain activity during reading in dyslexic readers
As children with dyslexia need support and encouragement from parents and educators, detecting the disorder as early as possible is critical. By providing them with the right tools, you can help them manage in school and compensate for their disability.
When dyslexia is not found and treated early on, it tends to snowball. As kids get more and more behind in school, they may become more and more frustrated, feeling like a failure. Often, self-esteem problems lead to bad behavior and emotional problems such as depression, anxiety, and drop-out.
What are the Characteristics of Dyslexia?
The symptoms of dyslexia can differ from one child to another, and not all children with the condition will have troubles reading the same way. The symptoms are inconsistent and can even change within the same day and evolve differently as children grow.
What are the Characteristics of Dyslexia?
Problems with executive function: Executive function includes a wide range of complex cognitive skills that are responsible for planning tasks by breaking them down into steps. These steps could start with the task analysis and requirements, then organize and determine the time necessary to complete the task, structure the workload, set goals, evaluate the implemented actions, and adjust them based on the results, etc. Difficulty in executive development is one of the most common features of dyslexia. It means that any task that requires planning (examples: cleaning your room or finishing your homework) can pose a real challenge for children with dyslexia
Difficulties with learning and communicating: Impaired ability to comprehend rapid instructions, or understand jokes or expressions that have a meaning not easily understood from the specific words (idioms), such as “out of the blue” which means something happens that was unexpected. Inability to learn new words and pronounce them correctly. Feeling insecurity when speaking or expressing ideas, etc.
Trouble with reading: Difficulties with decrypting and remembering any language codes or symbols, making reading hard. Children with dyslexia frequently misinterpret the pronunciation of words, and have problems processing and understanding what they read. Thus, they are oftentimes not very interested in books.
Trouble with writing: Since dyslexic children have difficulties remembering spelling words over time and applying spelling rules, they make spelling mistakes frequently. They have trouble expressing their ideas in writing. Sometimes even though they fully understand the teacher, they have difficulties taking notes. Their pencil grip is generaly unusual making their handwriting irregular, barely readable, either too big or too small.
Confusion of motor skills and spatial orientation: Difficulty distinguishing left from right, up from down, front from back , inside from outside , etc. This problem may be associated with slur. They appear clumsier than other children and get lost more often. They are generally not good at sports that require coordination, such as cycling or any team sports such as football.
Distortion of time estimation: Difficulty to manage time and confusion regarding the date of the day.
Difficulties with math problems:Since they have problems recognizing symbols it is hard to do arithmetic as it involves symbols such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, etc. Children with dyslexia also have trouble memorizing multiplication tables.
Problems with social and emotional engagement: Children with dyslexia can be class clown, trouble-maker, or too quiet They are extremely disorderly or compulsively orderly. Every child is different, and we see cases of both rebellion and intolerance, but also cases of submission.
What are the Different Types of Dyslexia?
Although some symptoms are often common in dyslexia, scientists have identified several types of dyslexia. Use of the term dyslexia primarily distinguishes between genetic and acquired forms of dyslexia.
Acquired dyslexia: Occurs later in life and does not usually result from genetic, or hereditary causes. Often follows a traumatic brain injury, or brain damage - such as dementia or stroke - that affects the language areas of the brain which are responsible for processing the literacy.
Developmental dyslexia: Present at birth because it was inherited and then 'develops' during the first years of life, with some symptoms visible as early as 6 months to a year. It occurs when a child with normal intelligence and sensory abilities show learning deficits for reading. Developmental dyslexia affects about 10-20% of the population, 4% severely.
Surface dyslexia: Most often an acquired form of dyslexia but can be developmental as well. Children with surface dyslexia do not show significant reading difficulties. This type of dyslexia is associated with poor processing information in the visual, lexical or direct nerve pathways, meaning that children can sound words out well, even nonsense words, but have to split words into fragments or syllables to read the words. It becomes more troublesome when the words are not in line with the pronunciation.
Phonological dyslexia: Most common type of dyslexia, synonymous with dyslexia itself. Mainly a developmental type of dyslexia but in some cases can be an acquired type of dyslexia after a stroke or Alzheimer's disease. Children with phonological dyslexia experience extreme difficulty reading long, unfamiliar or, infrequent words. However, they are able to read correctly familiar words. This type of dyslexia is associated with poor brain areas associated with processing the sounds of language, meaning that children with this disorder, often read through lexical or visual pathways but have trouble with the auditory processing.
Deep Dyslexia: Is an acquired form of dyslexia. One of the most severe forms of dyslexia as the individual loses the existing capacity to read. Deep dyslexics have trouble with both sounding out words and recognizing whole words because phonological and visual neuronal pathways are both damaged
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