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Cognition and aging: Verbal learning, memory, and problem solving

Cognition and aging: Verbal learning, memory, and problem solving

Publication: Am Psychol

Authors: Schaie KW

Publication year, pages: 1994; 49:304-313

Sample Size: 5000.

Results, Conclusions and Implications: integrative findings are provided on patterns and magnitudes of age changes, cohort differences, factor structure of mental abilities, antecedents for individual differences in aging trajectories, and interventions designed to remediate cognitive aging effects

Status: Published.

Key Words: intellectual abilities, Seattle longitudinal study, cognitive aging.

Abstract: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Publication: Gerontologist

Authors: Schaie KW

Publication year, pages: 1989; 29:484-493

Sample Size: 5000.

Results, Conclusions and Implications: using occurrence of significant decline in cognitive abilities as an exemplar, hazard functions are presented that allow the assessment of risk for future decline, as well as the prediction of the calendar age when individuals can expect cognitive decline under alternative assumptions.

Status: Published.

Key Words: cognitive decline, Seattle longitudinal study, cognitive aging.

Abstract: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition

Publication: Psychol Rev

Authors: Salthouse TA

Publication year, pages: 1996;103: 403-428

Sample Size: --.

Results, Conclusions and Implications: cognitive performance is degraded when processing is slow because relevant operations cannot be successfully executed (limited time) and because the products of early processing may no longer be available when later processing is complete (simultaneity).

Status: Published.

Key Words: age-related differences, processing speed.

Abstract: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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Normal aging and forgetting rates on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised

Publication: Arch Clin Neuropsychol

Authors: Cullum CM, Butters N, Tr?ster AI, Salmon DP

Publication year, pages: 1990;5:23-30

Sample Size: --.

Results, Conclusions and Implications: Despite equivalent scores on measures of global cognitive status and attention/concentration, the older group demonstrated significantly more rapid forgetting rates on the Visual Reproduction, Verbal Paired Associates, and Visual Paired Associates subtests of the WMS-R.

Status: Published.

Key Words: cognitive abilities, Alzheimer disease, normal elderly

Abstract: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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Aging, fitness and neurocognitive function

Publication: Nature

Authors: Kramer AF, Hahn S, Cohen NJ, et al

Publication year, pages: 1999;400: 418-419

Sample Size: 124.

Results, Conclusions and Implications: those who received aerobic training showed substantial improvements in performance on tasks requiring executive control compared with anaerobically trained subjects.

Status: Published.

Key Words: aerobic and anaerobic exercise, aging, cognitive processes

Abstract: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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Age differences in cognitive performance in later life: Relationships to self-reported

Publication: Journal of Gerontology

Authors: Hultsch, DF, Hammer, M, and Small, BJ

Publication year, pages: 1993; 48, 1?11

Sample Size: 484.

Results, Conclusions and Implications: individual differences in self-reported health and activity predicted performance on multiple cognitive measures. Additionally, self-reported health was more predictive of processing resource variables than knowledge-based abilities, interaction effects indicated that participation in cognitively demanding activities was more highly related to performance on some measures for older adults than for middle-aged adults.

Status: Published.

Key Words: individual differences, information processing, cognitive tasks

Abstract: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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Use it or lose it: Engaged lifestyle as a buffer of cognitive decline in aging?

Publication: Psychology and Aging

Authors: Hultsch, DF Hertzog, C Small, BJ and Dixon, RA

Publication year, pages: 1999, 14, 245?263

Sample Size: 250.

Results, Conclusions and Implications: There was a relationship between changes in intellectually related activities and changes in cognitive functioning.

Status: Published.

Key Words: Victoria Longitudinal Study, cognitive decline, lifestyle

Abstract: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept

Publication: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society

Authors: Stern, Y

Publication year, pages: 2002; 8,448?460

Sample Size: --.

Results, Conclusions and Implications: Cognitive reserve may be based on more efficient utilization of brain networks or of enhanced ability to recruit alternate brain networks as needed. A distinction is suggested between reserve, the ability to optimize or maximize normal performance, and compensation, an attempt to maximize performance in the face of brain damage by using brain structures or networks not engaged when the brain is not damaged.

Status: Published.

Key Words: cognitive reserve, cognitive performance

Abstract: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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Age and visual search: expanding the useful field of view

Publication: J Opt Soc Am A

Authors: Ball KK, Beard BL, Roenker DL, Miller RL, Griggs DS

Publication year, pages: 1988; 5: 2210-2219

Sample Size: --.

Results, Conclusions and Implications: found a reduction in the size of the field as a function of age

Status: Published.

Key Words: aging, useful field of view

Abstract: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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Training the elderly on the ability factors of spatial orientation and inductive reasoning

Publication: Psychol Aging

Authors: Willis SL, Schaie KW

Publication year, pages: 1986; 1: 239-247

Sample Size: 5000.

Results, Conclusions and Implications: Significant training effects, at the level of the latent ability constructs, occurred for both spatial orientation and inductive reasoning.

Status: Published.

Key Words: cognitive training, elderly

Abstract: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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Improving memory performance in the aged through mnemonic training: a meta-analytic study

Publication: Psychol Aging

Authors: Verhaeghen P, Marcoen A, Goossens L

Publication year, pages: 1992; 7: 242-251

Sample Size: --.

Results, Conclusions and Implications: Treatment gains in training groups were negatively affected by age of participants and duration of training sessions and positively affected by group treatment, pretraining, and memory-related interventions.

Status: Published.

Key Words: memory training, healthy elders

Abstract: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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The impact of long-term exercise training on psychological function in older adults

Publication: J Gerontol

Authors: Hill RD, Storandt M, Malley M

Publication year, pages: 1993; 48:P12-P17

Sample Size: 87.

Results, Conclusions and Implications: In addition to improved cardiovascular fitness, a positive change in self-reported morale was found for the exercise condition. a significant effect was noted for the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) Logical Memory subtest.

Status: Published.

Key Words: sedentary older adults, cognitive abilities, training

Abstract: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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Multiple Sclerosis: magnetic resonance imaging, evoked responses and spinal fluid electrophoresis

Publication: Neurology

Authors: Farlow MR, Markand ON, Edwards MK, Stevens JC, Kolar OJ

Publication year, pages: 1984; 36: 828-31

Sample Size: 39.

Results, Conclusions and Implications: MRI showed multiple lesions in 71%, and ER abnormalities were found in 41%

Status: Published.

Key Words: Multiple Sclerosis, MRI, ER

Abstract: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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Cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis

Publication: Neurology

Authors: Rao SM, Leo GJ, Bernardin L, Unverzagt F

Publication year, pages: 1991; 41: 685-91

Sample Size: --.

Results, Conclusions and Implications: disease modifying medications can have an impact on magnetic resonance imaging disease activity by altering the cerebral demyelinating process resulting in a slower decline in cognitive functions over time and improved activities of daily living for patients with multiple sclerosis.

Status: Published.

Key Words: Multiple Sclerosis, Cognition

Abstract: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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Life and death of neurons in the aging brain

Publication: Science

Authors: Morrison JH, Hof PR

Publication year, pages: 1997; 278:412-419

Sample Size: --.

Results, Conclusions and Implications: the primary neurobiological substrates for functional impairment in aging differ in important ways from those in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

Status: Published.

Key Words: Aging, Brain areas, Cognitive impairments

Abstract: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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Aging and neuronal replacement

Publication: Ageing Res. Rev

Authors: Brazel, CY and Rao, MS

Publication year, pages: 2004; 3, 465?483

Sample Size: --.

Results, Conclusions and Implications: neural stem cells can be transplanted into injured regions of the adult brain to enhance compensatory neurogenesis from endogenous precursors. Pre-differentiation of neural stem cells into immature neurons prior to transplantation can also aid in functional recovery following injury or disease

Status: Published.

Key Words: Neural cells, Adult brain

Abstract: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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