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Confirm that the use of assessments and training is for yourselfYou are going to create a personal account. This type of account is specially designed to help you evaluate and train your cognitive skills

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For users 16 years and older. Children under 16 can use CogniFit with a parent on one of the family platforms.

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Cognitive Abilities
Internal consistency
Test-retest reliability
Shifting
0,726
0,842
Divided Attention
0,866
0,85
Width of Field of View
0,806
0,998
Hand-eye Coordination
0,779
0,876
Naming
0,687
0,782
Focused Attention
1
0,905
Visual Scanning
0,862
0,922
Estimation
0,761
0,986
Inhibition
0,661
0,697
Auditory Short-term Memory
0,915
0,698
Contextual Memory
0,884
0,775
Visual Short Term Memory
0,866
0,743
Short-Term Memory
0,853
0,721
Working Memory
0,85
0,696
Non-verbal Memory
0,787
0,73
Spatial Perception
0,611
0,907
Visual Perception
0,751
0,882
Auditory perception
0,652
0,904
Planning
0,765
0,826
Recognition
0,864
0,771
Response Time
0,873
0,821
Processing Speed
0,888
0,764

Multi-platform

Reliability analysis of the evaluation (Only in English)Download

Online Driving Test: Cognitive Assessment Battery (DAB)

Evaluates the cognitive processes and abilities involved in driving. This neuropsychological battery for safe driving predicts the quality of vehicle handling and identifies the risk level index in healthy people or people with different pathologies.*

Who is it for?

Online Driving Test: Cognitive Assessment Battery (DAB)

Confirm that the use of assessments and training is for yourselfYou are going to create a personal account. This type of account is specially designed to help you evaluate and train your cognitive skills

Confirm that you want to offer training and/or cognitive assessments to your family or friends.You are going to create a family account. This account is designed to give your family members access to CogniFit evaluations and training.

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Number of assessments*

* Assessment licenses can be used for any type of assessment

Online Driving Test: Cognitive Assessment Battery (DAB)

Online Driving Test: Cognitive Assessment Battery (DAB)

  • It assesses the current state of the cognitive abilities most involved in driving.
  • For young people who want to obtain their driving license, adults, and seniors.
  • The approximate test duration is 30-40 minutes.
  • Reliability analysis of the evaluation - Only in English Download

CogniFit's Driving Cognitive Assessment (DAB) is a leading professional tool that allows you to know, through digital neuropsychological tasks, whether a young person, adult or senior (healthy or with any pathology) has the necessary cognitive capacity and attitude to drive efficiently and safely.

The results provided by this neuropsychological test provide relevant information that can help predict the quality of vehicle handling and identify the risk index or accident tendency (low-medium-high). Any private or professional user can easily operate this test to evaluate driving ability.

This driving test is completely digital. It is performed online and lasts approximately 30-40 minutes. At the end of the evaluation, you will automatically get a complete report of results with useful and comprehensible information about your driving ability, performance, and skills. This test provides valuable information that can help us identify whether there is cognitive impairment or deficits in important aspects involved in driving (ability to estimate distances and speeds, manual dexterity, time perception, attention, auditory and visual perception, speed or reaction time, etc.).

It is recommended to perform this neuropsychological battery when you want to predict driving ability or the capacity for vehicle handling. This test is especially useful for assessing at-risk drivers, helping to detect whether a driver will be able to drive safely.

It should be noted that this driving test is not, and does not replace, the driving test, but rather explores other variables relevant to driving. Its main objective is to contribute to a low accident rate among vehicle drivers.

Digitalized Protocol for the Driving Cognitive Assessment (DAB)

Digitalized Protocol for the Driving Cognitive Assessment (DAB)

This comprehensive driving test allows us to assess the cognitive processes involved in driving and predict the quality of driving and vehicle handling ability in order to favor a low accident rate among drivers.

This cognitive driving test consists of a questionnaire and a complete battery of scientifically validated neuropsychological tests. The total duration of this driving assessment is approximately 30-40 minutes

The results obtained can point out if a person is in a good cognitive state to drive or if they suffer from any deficits that could represent a danger to road safety. It can apply to both driver's license applicants, people who haven't driven in a long time, people who have had their driver's license withdrawn, people who have suffered brain damage or senior drivers.

The Driving Cognitive Assessment (DAB) contains three sections:

Diagnostic Criteria Questionnaire

A series of easy questions are presented and should be answered honestly. They are aimed at understanding the emotional and characteristic features of the person's driving behavior and risk propensity (adaptation to road rules and regulations, motivation and driving style).

Neuropsychological factors and cognitive profile

It continues with a battery of digital tasks, aimed at accurately assessing the main cognitive aspects involved in driving, such as attention or concentration, perception, memory, executive functions, and coordination. This driving test allows the driver to explore and assess a range of cognitive skills critical to driving performance, and employ clinical scales and age-validated tests. This way, we can know the neuropsychological profile of the driver and the probability of being in an accident.

Complete results report

At the end of this driving test, you will automatically receive a fully detailed report with the results. In this report, you will find a prediction the driving quality of vehicle handling, the accident tendency index (high-medium-low), cognitive performance, fitness criteria, warning signs, neuropsychological profile, results analysis compared to the user's reference group and recommendations. The results provide valuable information and action guidelines for identifying support strategies.

Psychometric Results

Psychometric Results

CogniFit's Driving Cognitive Assessment (DAB) uses patented algorithms and artificial intelligence (IA) technology to analyze more than a thousand variables to obtain a complete cognitive profile with very satisfactory psychometric results. This neuropsychological test is responsible for measuring a series of cognitive abilities essential to road safety.

Each of the neuropsychological tasks included in the Driving Cognitive Assessment (DAB) has been scientifically developed and validated through independent research. This ensures appropriate psychometric characteristics for an effective evaluation of the drivers' mental and overall cognitive status. The cognitive profile of the neuropsychological report is highly reliable, consistent, and stable. Through transversal research designs, psychometric statistics have been obtained with Cronbach's Alpha coefficient values close to 0.9. Test -Retest assessments have obtained values close to 1.0, demonstrating high reliability and accuracy.

See validation table

Who is it for?

Who is it for?

This Driving Cognitive Assessment (DAB) can be applied to a wide spectrum of the population, whether it be for young applicants of a driver's license, people who haven't driven in a long time, people who have had their driver's license withdrawn, people who have suffered brain damage, or senior drivers. Any private or professional user can easily handle this neuropsychological evaluation of driving ability. You do not need a driver's license, or neuroscience or computer skills. It is specially designed for:

Know and explore my cognitive state

For young people, adults or seniors who want to measure their cognitive state for driving.

With CogniFit's Driving Cognitive Assessment (DAB), any user can quickly and easily learn about their cognitive profile, including strengths and weaknesses. This driver assessment could help us to overcome doubts about whether our cognitive state (attention, memory, planning, etc.) is at an appropriate level for safe driving or for taking the driving test. This can be especially useful, for example, for those who have not driven in a long time, or for those who have just become parents and feel that they are not prepared to drive with the new baby.

Measure a patient's cognitive progress

For healthcare professionals

As doctors or psychologists, you may be interested to see if any patients with brain damage (stroke, TBI), PTSD, or whose cognitive skills may be affected by age (MCI) have the cognitive skills necessary for driving. The professional tool from CogniFit can help answer these questions.

Measure the degree of improvement during the cognitive rehabilitation of my patients

For Healthcare Professionals

As doctors or psychologists, we may be interested to know if any of our patients who have suffered brain damage (stroke, stroke or head injury), post-traumatic stress disorder, or whose cognitive abilities have been affected by aging (mild cognitive impairment) are able to drive. CogniFit's tool can help us answer these questions.

Evaluate the cognitive health of your loved ones

For parents or families

The Cognitive Assessment Battery for Driving from CogniFit is a scientific resource made of simple and fun online exercises. This makes it possible for anyone, even those without special training, to understand the neuropsychological state of family members. This may be especially useful if you want to see if your child has the necessary cognitive skills to get their driver's license and drive safely, or if an elderly parent still has the necessary skills to drive.

To study the neuropsychological characteristics of research participants

For researchers and scientists

CogniFit's Driving Cognitive Assessment (DAB) allows an accurate and convenient measurement of a large number of cognitive abilities involved in driving the car. CogniFit technology takes thousands of variables into account during assessment activities to obtain reliable data about the participant's cognitive status.

Evaluate the cognitive abilities of my company's drivers

For human resources and companies

Drivers are a core part of many companies (such as freight companies, home delivery companies or passenger transport companies), so we may be interested in knowing their cognitive abilities in order to optimise their performance and reduce accidents.

Advantages

Advantages

Using this computer resource based on scientific methodology to quickly and accurately assess the cognitive status of drivers or those who want to obtain a driving license offers many advantages:

LEADING INSTRUMENT

The Driving Cognitive Assessment (DAB) is a professional resource created by neuropsychologists. Cognitive tests for drivers have been patented and clinically validated. This leading instrument is used by the scientific community, driving schools, families, foundations, and medical centers around the world.

EASY-TO-USE

Any private or professional user (driving school teacher, doctor, psychologist, etc.) can personally apply this driving neuropsychological evaluation without having knowledge of neuroscience, or computer science. The interactive format allows agile and efficient management.

COMPLETELY AUTOMATED

The cognitive tasks for driving from CogniFit are completely online, which means that the user can complete them from their own home. In the case that this cognitive assessment has been recommended by a professional user, the user will be able to complete the assessment either with the professional, or in any place with internet access.

USER-FRIENDLY

All of the clinical tasks are presented automatically in the form of fun and interactive brain games, making it possible to better understand games and learn more efficiently.

DETAILED RESULTS REPORT

The Driving Cognitive Assessment (DAB) offers quick and precise feedback, which created a complete analysis of the results gathered. This helps recognize and understand the cognitive problems that may affect one's ability to drive.

ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This powerful software makes it possible to analyze thousands of variables and offer specific recommendations adjusted to each person's needs. The report includes a plan of action specific to each user.

APPLICABLE TO GROUP

This driving assessment was created to be applied to individuals or groups. Its format makes it possible to assess multiple users in less than an hour, and instantly receive the results, as the program will analyze the results and generate the report automatically. Each report will indicate the user's cognitive profile, results from the test, and recommendations. This makes it possible to easily use with groups of people in just a short amount of time.

ACCESSIBLE

The driving test is available in 19 languages for computers, tablets, and smartphones. It does not require specialized or additional material, which makes it easy to apply at homes or companies.

In which cases is it advisable to apply this cognitive assessment test for efficient and safe driving?

In which cases is it advisable to apply this cognitive assessment test for efficient and safe driving?

Thanks to its excellent psychometric qualities and easy application, the CogniFit's Driving Cognitive Assessment (DAB) can be really useful for a wide variety of cases. For example, if a driver suffers a head injury in a traffic accident, his or her cognitive abilities and confidence may be impaired. After the corresponding neurorehabilitation, CogniFit cognitive assessment for driving can help determine if that driver is able to get back on the road. However, it should be taken into account that, in order to drive safely, not only are minimum cognitive requirements necessary, but other factors must also be taken into account, such as road knowledge, the skills required, an adequate perceptual-motor performance in driving (depending on factors such as manual laterality), health, and other situational variables.

If you suspect that a person may be suffering from some type of disorder, or simply want to know their cognitive status, it is recommended that this evaluation be done as soon as possible. A follow-up of a person's cognitive profile and well-being allows the early detection of various disorders and allows us to start treatment as soon as possible.

CogniFit's Driving Cognitive Assessment (DAB) may be useful for:

V2_ASSESS_Test_conduccion_CASES_SUBTIPOS
Most representative symptoms
Description
V2_ASSESS_Test_conduccion_CASES_SINT_1
When you apply for a new or renew your driver's license
When your loved ones second guess your driving ability as you age
Drive again after brain damage and rehabilitation
When you drive professionally
When you want to measure cognitive strengths and abilities in drivers
When you haven't driven in a long time

When you apply for a new or renew your driver's license

CogniFit Driving Cognitive Assessment (DAB) provides very important information about the current status of the various cognitive abilities involved in driving. A poor state of these abilities would indicate to us that the person seeking to obtain or renew their driving license is not in the most appropriate conditions to drive. On the contrary, positive scores would imply that they have sufficient cognitive abilities to drive safely.

When your loved ones second guess your driving ability as you age

Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) reduce drivers' ability to operate a vehicle, making them risky drivers. However, a percentage of people in the mild phase can still pass driving tests without added risk. Driving can be very relevant to the person's independence, so it is important to know whether or not it is necessary to stop driving. In addition, people with dementia rarely make the decision to stop driving themselves, due to a lack of awareness of their own deficits. Periodically applying the CogniFit driving assessment can help distinguish which drivers are able to drive and who may pose a risk to road safety. In any case, people with advanced-stage dementia should not drive at all. However, some studies suggest that patients with mild dementia should not drive either, given the risk they pose to themselves and others and that only about 50% of people with MCI are able to drive. There are a series of warning symptoms that can indicate the need to take this assessment, such as having caused accidents, not recognizing known roads, detecting people or vehicles that you have not seen in advance, close relatives who are concerned about how they drive. Any of these signs may be enough. It is important to keep in mind that experience cannot always compensate for the effects of age.

Drive again after brain damage and rehabilitation

Brain damage can appear in very different ways, such as stroke, brain tumor, traffic accident, or any number of other situations. Injuries to the brain can cause mild or severe alterations in people's cognitive functioning. These disturbances often prevent or hinder activities of daily life, such as working, driving, or even getting dressed. In the case of driving, the risk of causing an accident involving oneself or others increases exponentially if the person driving has lost or diminished the cognitive abilities needed to drive. In some cases, after proper neurorehabilitation, the person recovers a sufficient level to drive. However, it is critical to conduct a thorough assessment to distinguish whether the improvement is good enough to drive. CogniFit's evaluation battery for drivers can help make a decision about whether or not the person can resume driving.

When you drive professionally

Road safety and efficient driving are particularly relevant when the user is professionally engaged in driving. This evaluation for driving helps us know which cognitive aspects (reaction time, divided attention, planning, etc.) can make us stand out as drivers, or if we are really prepared to aspire to a job of this kind.

When you want to measure cognitive strengths and abilities in drivers

Understanding how different areas of the brain work allows us to determine the cognitive status and recognize strengths and weaknesses. This battery can help us understand what is causing a person's difficulties (e. g. memory problems vs attention problems), which makes it easier to start appropriate training, such as CogniFit Cognitive Training for Drivers.

When you haven't driven in a long time

Even when we have our driver's license approved, the lack of practice can make us feel unsafe when driving our vehicle around the city, or for long journeys. It is also not surprising that people who have recently had a child feel that this increased responsibility makes them doubt their abilities. This driving test can be used to check whether our cognitive abilities and reflexes are at an appropriate level for these situations.

Description of the diagnostic criteria questionnaire

Description of the diagnostic criteria questionnaire

When it comes to road safety, there is no such thing as too much precaution. In addition to theoretical and practical knowledge, skills and the good condition of different cognitive abilities, it is also important to take into account a number of factors more closely related to person's character. These factors may favour or mitigate the risk of car and other vehicle accidents. That's why the first step of CogniFit's Driving Cognitive Assessment (DAB) consists of a questionnaire that helps detect the risk characteristics of drivers.

Regulations and roadway compliance: The human factor is crucial in avoiding road hazards. Correct compliance with road rules and regulations contributes enormously to reducing the risk of accidents.

Motivation: Motivation is a factor that can facilitate decision making and good behavior on the road, which helps to reduce the risk of driving problems.

Drive Style: Driving style refers to the tendency to perform a set of behaviors on the road that have certain traits in common. There are three main types: the prudent driving style, the fearful driving style, and the aggressive driving style. Depending on the driving style, the risk of an accident will increase or decrease.

Diagnostic criteria for adults and seniors

It consists of a series of easy-to-reply items that can be completed by the professional responsible for the evaluation, or by the person performing the cognitive assessment test for driving. The questionnaire collects items on the following domains: Compliance with road rules and regulations (adjusting to the indications and traffic code), Motivation (to have interest and strive to maintain safe behavior and avoid risky behavior) and driving style (to drive the vehicle in a prudent, fearful or aggressive way). The questions pertaining to each domain are adapted for the routines and activities of adults or elderly people.

Battery description to assess neuropsychological aspects and cognitive profile of drivers

Battery description to assess neuropsychological aspects and cognitive profile of drivers

Cognitive abilities may be sufficiently impaired so as to cause an accident or, at least, an increased risk. A specific profile of cognitive abilities involved in driving may indicate whether this risk is higher or lower. Scientific studies suggest that attention and reaction time are important during driving. However, language and memory also seem to be good indicators of accident risk. In addition, perception and executive functions are key to low accident rates. Given the importance of good cognitive performance, CogniFit's Driving Cognitive Assessment (DAB) assigns great importance to measuring the following cognitive areas and abilities:

Evaluated Cognitive Domains
Cognitive Abilities

Attention

Ability to filter distractions and focus on relevant information.

Excellent

7.7% above average

Divided Attention

Divided attention and driving. Divided attention is the ability to pay attention to more than one stimulus or activity at the same time. We get ready to overtake and suddenly we notice a sign indicating the exit to take. If we are not able to pay proper attention to the overtaking and the traffic signal at the same time, or we will lose valuable information for our trip, we will run the risk of an accident. To drive, our attention needs to be in very good condition.

604Your Score

400Average

Focused Attention

Focused attention and driving. Focused attention is the ability to focus our attention on a target stimulus, regardless of how long it lasts. Any journey made by car requires attention to the road, the vehicles and signs that appear during the journey, or the speed, revolutions and gas indicators on our car. A distraction at the wheel can have fatal consequences, so it is important to have focused attention to reduce dangerous situations.

737Your Score

400Average

Inhibition

Inhibition and driving. Inhibition is the ability to control impulsive or automatic responses, and generate responses mediated by attention and reasoning. It is not particularly rare for unforeseen events to occur on the road. We may take the exit at a roundabout and have to slow down because a car has invaded our lane from inside the roundabout to take the same exit. The fact that we are able to stop or inhibit the planned action due to an unforeseen event, giving us the capacity to act accordingly, is thanks to inhibition.

729Your Score

400Average

Memory

Ability to retain or manipulate new information and recover memories from the past.

Excellent

8.1% above average

Visual Short Term Memory

Short-term visual memory and driving. Short-term visual memory is the ability to retain a small amount of visual information, such as letters, words, etc., for a short period of time. When we are driving, short-term visual memory allows us to retain the text of signs and traffic signs once they have passed, or to know where the cars around us are once we have stopped looking at the mirrors.

485Your Score

400Average

Coordination

Ability to efficiently carry-out precise and organized movements.

Excellent

7.5% above average

Hand-eye Coordination

Hand-eye coordination and driving. Eye-hand coordination is the ability to perform activities in which we simultaneously use both eyes and hands. In driving cars, we use in a constant way the ocular-motor coordination, since we direct our movements to the steering wheel depending on the visual information that surrounds us.

744Your Score

400Average

Response Time

Response time and driving. Response time is the ability to perceive and process a simple stimulus and respond to it, how to respond quickly and efficiently to a specific question. If we are driving a car and suddenly a pedestrian crosses the road, the time that passes since we perceive the pedestrian, we decide that we have to step on the brake and carry out the action, would be the response time. This cognitive ability can save us from many accidents.

665Your Score

400Average

Perception

Ability to interpret the stimuli from one's surroundings.

Excellent

7.5% above average

Estimation

Estimation and driving. Estimation is the ability to predict or generate an answer when the solution is not available. When we are going to overtake another car, we need to calculate the speed of traffic. The ability to estimate is essential in making decisions in risky driving situations.

649Your Score

400Average

Visual Scanning

Visual scanning and driving. Visual scanning is the ability to actively and efficiently search for relevant stimuli around us through sight. When driving, we constantly look at the road. In doing so, we scan the terrain with our eyes and detect other vehicles, traffic signs, and road imperfections. A poor visual examination could lead us to miss a vehicle during overtaking and cause a serious accident.

650Your Score

400Average

Width of Field of View

Width of field of view and driving. Width of field of view is the portion of space in which our visual system can detect the presence of stimuli. When driving, having an adequate field of vision is essential to reduce risky situations at the wheel. When we are going to overtake another vehicle, for example, we have to look at the rear-view mirrors and the lane we want to join, but without neglecting to look ahead. It is thanks to the width of field view that we can look at the rear-view mirror and see the road ahead of us at the same time.

587Your Score

400Average

Reasoning

Ability to efficiently use (organize, relate, etc.) acquired information.

Excellent

8.1% above average

Shifting

Cognitive flexibility and driving. Cognitive flexibility is the ability to adapt our behavior and think about new, changing or unexpected situations. If every day we take the same route to work, but one day there has been an accident and the resulting traffic jam is going to cause us to arrive late, we can choose to take another route that may not be affected by the accident. Our previous plan or routine has been hindered by an unforeseen situation, but thanks to cognitive flexibility we have been able to generate alternative options.

519Your Score

400Average

Evaluation tasks

Evaluation tasks

This multi-dimensional scientific resource uses multiple evaluation tasks. Here you can see examples:

Processing Test REST-INH

The Processing Test REST-INH was inspired by the classic Variables of Attention (TOVA) test.The task helps to perceive, process, and respond to a stimulus. Depending on the processing speed, the response time will be affected to a greater or lesser extent. It will also allow the user to ignore irrelevant or unimportant stimuli.

Estimation Test EST-I

The Estimation I Test assessed the prediction process of the stimuli that are given in the task. It will help professionals evaluate the user's ability to predict and estimate the future of an object based on its speed, route, and distance. The task requires that the user pay attention to the stimulus’ route, as this will be how points are accumulated.

Estimation Test EST-III

In the Estimation Test III, the user must predict, anticipate, or assume the position, the location, and the distance between the figures that appear in the task. This task measures the user's spatial vision as well as the capacity to be able to judge the object's distance and size from a 3D perspective.

Visual Abilities Test WIFIVI

This test was inspired by the Useful Field of Vision test (UFOV) and on other neuropsychological batteries that measure field of view. This test assesses the amount of visual information that one receives when looking at a single point. This makes it possible to precisely measure field of view.

Brain and driving

Brain and driving

Driving is a very complex activity that requires a large number of cognitive abilities and, therefore, the coordination of different brain areas. To drive efficiently and safely requires a lot of effort and resources of our brain, which will allow us to use our cognitive abilities:

1 Attention

Attention is the most basic component of safe driving. The reticular formation of the brain stem allows us to remain awake (awake and clear) so that we can detect and act on stimuli. The parietal lobe makes it possible for us to direct our attention around us; thus, when it is damaged, hemineglect (an acquired inability to attend to the contralateral side of the damaged hemisphere) occurs. Attention control is carried out by the prefrontal cortex, also essential for the concentration required during a journey.

2 Perception

During driving, we must put all our senses on the road, although the most important information we get is sight and hearing. The occipital lobe is the one that works the most basic visual information. This information is then processed in the posterior parietal lobe, which gives us information on where the information we see is, while the lower temporal lobe informs us about what the object is. For its part, auditory perception is carried out in the upper temporal circle. These areas make it possible for us to see and hear, respectively, what happens around us when we are driving.

3 Memory

The hippocampus is essential for us to learn and remember the journeys we make with our vehicle. The prefrontal cortex is what allows us to retain information and manipulate it mentally. On the other hand, the learning of automatic motor sequences (such as those we carry out when changing gears, using the indicator or simply operating the steering wheel or pedals) is possible thanks to the basal ganglia.

4 Executive Functions

Plan a trip, be able to respond flexibly to an unforeseen event on the road, stop our actions if we see that they can produce an accident, etc. All this is possible thanks to the correct functioning of our prefrontal cortex. The anterior cingulate cortex also plays an important role during activities that require inhibition.

5 Coordination

The voluntary movements carried out with precision, such as turning the steering wheel as necessary to park our vehicle, require both our frontal cortex and our cerebellum. Injuries to these structures tend to cause the inability to move some parts of the body, or produce erratic and misaligned movements.

Customer Service

Customer Service

If you have any questions about data operation, management or interpretation of our assessments, you can contact us immediately. Our team of professionals will solve your doubts and help you with anything you need.

Contact Us Now

References

References

Shatil E (2013). Does combined cognitive training and physical activity training enhance cognitive abilities more than either alone? A four-condition randomized controlled trial among healthy older adults. Front. Aging Neurosci. 5:8. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2013.00008.Korczyn AD, Peretz C, Aharonson V, et al. - Computer based cognitive training with CogniFit improved cognitive performance above the effect of classic computer games: prospective, randomized, double blind intervention study in the elderly. Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association 2007; 3(3):S171. Shatil E, Korczyn AD, Peretz C, et al. - Improving cognitive performance in elderly subjects using computerized cognitive training - Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association 2008; 4(4):T492, Lubrini, G., Periáñez, J.A., & Ríos-Lago, M. (2009). Introducción a la estimulación cognitiva y la rehabilitación neuropsicológica. En Estimulación cognitiva y rehabilitación neuropsicológica (p.13). Rambla del Poblenou 156, 08018 Barcelona: Editorial UOC.cuatro (4): T492. Verghese J, J Mahoney, Ambrosio AF, Wang C, Holtzer R. - Efecto de la rehabilitación cognitiva en la marcha en personas mayores sedentarias - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010 Dec;65(12):1338-43. Evelyn Shatil, Jaroslava Mikulecká, Francesco Bellotti, Vladimír Burěs - Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function - PLoS ONE July 03, 2014. 10.1371/journal.pone.0101472. Gard T, Hölzel BK, Lazar SW. The potential effects of meditation on age-related cognitive decline: a systematic review. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2014 Jan; 1307:89-103. doi: 10.1111/nyas.12348. 2. Voss MW et al. Plasticity of brain networks in a randomized intervention trial of exercise training in older adults. Front Aging Neurosci. 2010 Aug 26;2. pii: 32. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2010.00032.

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