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  • Get this complete online neuropsychological assessment battery.

  • Extensively explore and measure brain functions.

  • Identify and evaluate cognitive alterations or disorders.

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CogniFit's Cognitive Assessment Battery (CAB) is a complete neurocognitive test designed to provide resources to healthcare professionals. Thanks to the assessment battery, each professional will have access to a tool designed to detect impaired cognitive areas in people both with and without pathologies. This tool uses uses cognitive tests to measure cognitive level and assess each user's cognitive state.

This neurocognitive tool helps assess a large range of cognitive skills related to executive functions. It allows for a precise measurement of cognitive decline and, through cognitive tests, provides a depiction of the user's cognitive function.

The data and results collected from the cognitive assessment are helpful for both the patient and the professional. These results allow both parties to recognize and understand certain brain disorders, behavior alterations, injuries, and neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, ultimately allowing the professional to effectively identify a diagnosis and help with the treatment process. The neuropsychological assessment from CogniFit makes up part of the foundation for identifying and monitoring the patient's intervention and rehabilitation.

The neuropsychological assessment from CogniFit has different areas, each of which of is made up of various tasks to help evaluate the user's performance in different neuropsychological environments. These areas are the following:

  • Memory area: Non-verbal memory, working memory, short-term memory, naming, visual short-term memory, auditory short-term memory, and contextual memory.
  • Attention area: Divided attention, focus, inhibition, and updating.
  • Perception area: Spatial perception, visual scanning, visual perception, estimation, recognition, and width of field of view.
  • Coordination area: Hand-eye coordination and response time.
  • Reasoning area: Processing speed, planning, and shifting.

Batteries of Tasks and Tests for Cognitive Assessment

Tasks for assessing Working Memory

The tasks that measure working memory are based on the classic Conners test, or CPT [1]. These tasks use one simple action to perform an analysis and synthesize the information for the completion of an activity. These tasks will use the prefrontal cortex, which is the area responsible for executive functions. In addition, reinforcing working memory is important because it allows for the manipulation and integration of information that is necessary for complex cognitive tasks. For example, problem solving, maintaining a conversation, or optimizing reasoning.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Working memory, short-term auditory memory, short-term memory, response time, and processing speed.

Tasks for assessing Short-Term Memory

The tests that measure short-term memory were inspired by the direct and indirect digits test from Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) [2]. These tasks require concentration, involvement in the executive task, and working memory. In order to closely follow the details of a scene or remember something within a short period of time, we need our brain areas to respond fluidly, using both the temporal and visual regions at the same time. Assessing this area will help the professional observe how the user learns something new and understands the environment.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Short-term memory, spatial perception, planning, processing speed, and working memory.

Tasks for assessing Naming

The tests that assess naming used the classic NEPSY test from Korkman, Kirk, and Kemp (1998) [3] as a reference. These types of tasks will use other skills at the same time, such as integrity of semantic representations, visual memory, and linguistic functions. When we identify an object, we must be able to search for the word in our stored words in order to be able to recreate a mental image in one word.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Naming, visual perception, response time, contextual memory, and updating.

Tasks for assessing Visual Short-Term Memory

This battery was based on the classic TOMM (Test of Memory Malingering) test, published in 1996 [4]. The combination of tasks help the user remember external information as a mental image. These tasks will involve encoding, storage, and recovery of mental representations. The visual cortex will be in charge of receiving information and identifying the object that the user is seeing from the subcortical regions. As visual memory is important for proper cognitive development, there are various useful tests to help evaluate its condition.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Short-term memory, response time, working memory, visual scanning, spatial perception, planning, contextual memory, updating, naming, and visual short-term memory.

Tasks for assessing Auditory Short-Term Memory

The auditory short-term memory test was inspired by one of the classic tests, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) by Rey (1964) [5]. The tests that measure auditory memory adjust the person's capacity for interpreting auditory stimuli. This task looks at the process of extracting meaning from information, and the ability to understand the message in order to perform the corresponding action.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Planning, visual memory, visual short-term memory, short-term memory, spatial perception, response time, working memory, and processing speed.

Tasks for assessing Contextual Memory

The contextual memory tests were inspired by the classic Contextual Memory Test, Toglia (1993) [6]. Contextual memory deterioration is associated with the frontal lobe and is not necessarily related to age. The task works to make it easier for the user to remember different aspects from one context. In other words, it makes it easier to remember different aspects of one event, object, etc. and remember it later as one set.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Contextual memory, updating, naming, and response time.

Tasks for assessing Divided Attention

This test used the classic Stroop Test (Stroop, 1935) [7] as a basis for its exercises. It helps the user work with two stimuli at the same time, precisely controlling the execution of a new task. When there is more than one sensory channel, attention is divided. If this skill is not prepared to receive two stimuli at the same time, it could overwhelm the brain and cause it to only focus on the more complex stimulus. When you work with more than one task simultaneously, a double “trigger” starts that will be located in both hemispheres at the same time.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Divided attention, updating, and hand-eye coordination.

Tasks for assessing Focus

This test was based on the classic CPT test by Conners [1]. This test developed procedures to keep attention on one task during a prolonged period of time, and works to direct focus on one stimulus in order to receive the proper results. Increasing concentration or focus levels can help to increase productivity in both social and work environments.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Focus, shifting, and inhibition.

Tasks for assessing Inhibition

These tests were inspired by the classic Stroop Test (Stroop, 1935) [7]. This test is similar to the Stroop test as it assess the executive functions related to planning, inhibition, and focused attention. When the brain receives many stimuli at the same time,it gives its attention to the more relevant ones, ignoring what it deems to be less important. Daily life is full of stimulation in the form of noises, voices, sounds, or any external sensation. It is in this moment that the brain must distinguish between important and less important stimuli in order to act accordingly.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Inhibition, response time, processing speed, shifting, hand-eye coordination, and updating.

Tasks for assessing Updating

The original test that measures shifting or cognitive flexibility was inspired by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) [8]. The tests are aimed to help the average user adapt to new situations and environments. There are several ways to adapt to events, but there are a set of cognitive processes that help manage and decide how to handle an event properly. We must reinforce these resources in order to see changes. Learning updating is possible due to flexibility and adaptation, which are processed by the connections of new neural networks, called synapses. People that have this ability are more able to learn new skills and integrate themselves in new environments more easily. The objective is that the user is able to respond to changes easily and flexibly, happily adapting to changing circumstances.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Updating, response time, hand-eye coordination, shifting, and inhibition.

Tasks for assessing Planning

The tasks are based on various classic tests, one of which is the classic Tower of London, Shallice test (1982) [9]. These tasks are responsible for foreseeing an event and helping the user prepare for it. The area of the brain in charge of planning and decision making is called the ventrolateral frontal cortex, which controls complex thinking processes and helps with decision making, creating goals, using time and cognitive actions productively, as well as self-control. Assessing and analyzing these areas allows you to quantify the most important aspects in planning and goal-making.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Planning, spatial perception, visual short-term memory, and visual scanning.

Tasks for assessing Shifting

The test that measures updating and shifting was inspired by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) [8], and used the classic Stroop Test (Stroop, 1935) [7] as a base for these tasks. The tests that assess this area are designed to redirect the subject from one focus to another as fast as possible, without distractions. These tasks helps to change the course of action and maintain a constant rhythm.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Shifting, divided attention, hand-eye coordination, and updating.

Tasks for assessing Processing Speed

The test that measures processing speed was based on Conners' classic test (CPT) [1] and on the test of direct and indirect digits from the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) [2]. The processing speed test was made to improve one's ability to automatically process information. The faster you can process information, the more efficiently you can accept new information. Processing consists of receiving information, understanding it, and creating a response. If there are difficulties in this area, the ability to make decisions, executive functions, and following instructions will be significantly affected.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Processing speed, working memory, and visual short-term memory.

Tasks for assessing Visual Scanning

This task was inspired by the classic Hooper Visual Organization Task (VOT) by Hooper (1983) [10]. The visual scanning task develops procedures to find the relevant information in the shortest amount of time and as efficiently as possible. It also measures the capacity to organize visual stimuli through ocular movement.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Visual scanning, response time, hand-eye coordination, planning, spatial perception, and working memory.

Tasks for assessing Hand-Eye Coordination

This test assesses the user's hand-eye coordination and used the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) [8] and the Stroop test [7] as references. The tasks made to assess the level of the user's hand-eye coordination also reinforce their neuromuscular capacity while performing the exercise. It works to adjust the hand's movements and accompanying visual to an object or stimulus. The user will be able to synchronize the action of the muscles that cause hand movement to require an appropriate speed and intensity.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Hand-eye coordination, updating, shifting, and divided attention.

Tasks for assessing Response Time

These tasks were inspired by the classic TOVA [11] test to measure response time. These tasks measure the response speed when a simple stimulus appears. The tasks that measure response time are related to the processing of information, as both processes develop the attention skill. Assessing this skills will help the professional observe the subject's ability to problem solve and make decisions, as well as help to prepare the most amount of information in the shortest time possible.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Response time, working memory, visual scanning, hand-eye coordination, inhibition, updating, naming, visual perception, and contextual memory.

Tasks for assessing Spatial Perception

The tasks that measure spatial perception were inspired by the combination of the classic Tower of London (TOL) test and the Hooper Visual Organization Task (VOT) by Hooper (1983) [10]. These tasks help to develop the body schema and cognitive capacities in the long term. It will allow for an analysis of the spatial sensations in order to be able to organize and understand them later. In summary, the user will be able to move, orient themselves, and analyze and depict situations.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Spatial perception, visual scanning, and short-term memory.

Tasks for assessing Visual Perception

This task was inspired by the Frosting (1961) visual perception evaluation method (DTVP) [13], which integrated visual and visual-motor perception, and borrows ideas from the classic test from Korkman, Kirk, and Kemp (1998, NEPSY) [3]. The task uses sounds to assess the perception level of images, sounds, and even feelings. This allows the user to develop and interpret exterior information.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Visual perception, naming, and response time.

Tasks for assessing Recognition

This test was inspired by the Conners (CPT) [1] test and the classic TOMM (Test of Memory Malingering) [4] test. While completing this task, the user will get a result of their ability to recover past information and recognize which events, places, or objects were present. As such, it will reinforce memory along with encoding and storage.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Recognition, response time, working memory, visual scanning, and spatial perception.

Tasks for assessing Estimation

Estimation is the ability to make an approximation about the near future and is measured by various tasks that exclusively evaluate estimation and the ability to make an approximation. Each of the tasks related to estimation will assess the user's ability to judge speed, distance, or time in different parameters.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Estimation.

Tasks for assessing Non-Verbal Memory

This task was inspired by the classic test by Korkman, Kirk, and Kemp in 1998 (NEPSY) [3] and by the test Memory Malingering (TOMM) [4]. Non-verbal memory helps to store information and recover mental depictions that we have kept in our senses. Non-verbal memory tends to be affected when the right hemisphere is damaged. The test assesses the ability to store non-verbal temporary information as well as visual spatial abilities, which help consolidate information.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Non-verbal memory, naming, contextual memory, updating, response time, working memory, visual memory, visual perception, recognition, and processing speed.

Tasks for assessing Width of Field of View

This task was based on the Useful Field of Vision (UFOV) test. The task measures the amount of information that we can see when we look at a point. In order words, everything that you can see apart from the object that we are looking at. This is why the task evaluates everything that you can see above, below, and on the sides while looking at one specific object. It is also possible to observe and assess the user's visual speed to detect a stimulus.

The evaluated cognitive abilities are: Width of Field of View

Evaluation Process

  • Duration: The Cognitive Assessment Battery will take about 40 minutes.
  • Points: Automated.
  • Target audience: Children (6 years and up) and adults.
  • Results: Personalized.

Analyzed Neuropsychological Areas

Scientific documentation: Validated battery of tests

This tool is made up of groups of scientifically validated tests [14] that assess cognitive abilities. This computerized cognitive battery was based on the most rigorous studies in the field of neuroscience, giving very satisfactory psychometric results and a Cronbach's alpha score of about 0.9.

Upon completion of the assessment, the CogniFit program creates a summary of the results for all of the tasks and each of the specific areas. These results allow the professional or the user to understand the general and particular cognitive levels for each of the areas that are evaluated in the Cognitive Test.

The following blocks explain the importance of assessing different cognitive functions, and show which of the abilities should be evaluated in order to receive accurate cognitive results.

MEMORY

Memory is one of our most important skills as humans. Because of it, we can store internal depictions of knowledge in our brain and retain information from past or current events. This process takes place through learning, which produces temporary memory coding in neural circuits. Memory recovers stored information and reproduces it in different situations. Without memory, experiences from the past would be lost in the moment they were acquired.

The hippocampus of the brain has different memory functions. This area must be strengthened and reinforced in order to improve memory. With the Cognitive Assessment Battery (CAB) from CogniFit, you will see which areas are most deteriorated and get specific help to improve those areas.

These are each of the cognitive skills that shape memory and that will be used in CogniFit's Cognitive Assessment

ATTENTION

Attention accompanies all cognitive processes. It is in charge of processing the information that comes from internal or external stimuli and assigns resources that allow for proper assimilation to the environment. Attention also directly influences other cognitive processes, like memory and perception. It helps to improve the processing of information, focus, and reasoning. Attention also assimilates new knowledge that we collect in our lifetime, which incorporates new neural structures.

Attention is a neural mechanism made up of a set of both cortical and subcortical neural connections that are found predominantly in the right hemisphere. Attention helps us in a number of functions in daily actions, such as focusing the conscience, filtering or erasing environmental information, and cognitive functions like memory or perception.

These are each of the cognitive skills that make up attention and that will be used in CogniFit's Cognitive Assessment

PERCEPTION

Perception is the cognitive area in charge of recognizing and interpreting sensory stimuli that we receive through our senses. We use perception to give meaning to sensations and to give them order. When information is first received by our senses, it is transformed into a recognized element that is understood by our conscience. For the process to be properly carried out, an assimilation and comprehension process is necessary to evaluate external information.

Perception is an important element in the analysis of the world that surrounds us. The perception process for each person is unique. For people to perform the process of perception and interpretation, they must rely on memory as the main element involved in the process.

These are each of the cognitive skills that make up perception and that will be used in CogniFit's Cognitive Evaluation

COORDINATION

Coordination refers to the actions of a set of elements that are performed together. Coordination aims to generate results from different tasks that will be part of a process for a specific purpose.

The part of the brain that is in charge of coordination is the cerebellum, which allows exterior information that we collect to properly be received by the body.

These are each of the cognitive skills that make up coordination and that will be used in CogniFit's Cognitive Evaluation

REASONING

Reasoning is the cognitive process that a person uses to organize and structure their ideas in order to get a specific conclusion. Thanks to reasoning, people show an internal coherence to their speech and thoughts. The ability to reason is formed by a set of sentences with development and conclusion. They follow a thread that connects them and makes it logical. In other words, it is the explanation that a person creates about a given topic. Reasoning is used with logic and comprehension.

Reasoning will be an important area to evaluate and reinforce, as it will help to improve our dialogue, establish classification principles, as well as relate, organize, and plan our ideas and actions logically.

These are each of the cognitive skills that make up reasoning and that will be used in CogniFit's Cognitive Assessment

Scientific Documentation

Each of the tasks that the Cognitive Assessment Battery (CAB) uses were validated by a scientific method based on evidence that helps provide an effective assessment of the brain and its general cognitive state. It is also shown to be very useful due to the continuous supervision of results and the personalized tasks that change in real time for each user.

Investigations have shown that the CogniFit program is highly validated in the assessment of brain level and executive functions. The cognitive assessment was designed to certify each of the cognitive areas of the user and to obtain, through exhaustive results, the cognitive level score for each user.

The aim of the neuropsychological battery is to used by both professionals and users to assess cognitive state. It not only provides results for the cognitive assessment, but it also provides the average results for each of the measured cognitive areas. The test will infer which of the user's cognitive areas are stronger and which are weaker.

Measurement and Results of Cognitive Tests

The evaluation previously described is made up of a set of tasks. Every task starts with short instructions to guide the user. The user should read them carefully to successfully perform each task.

Once the battery is completed, the CogniFit program will gather the user's results. The assessment guarantees efficiency, thanks to the supervision of the user's results and the changes made in real time.

The results obtained in each evaluation will be compared with the percentile corresponding to each age group. That is, age is an important variable to conclude the results and, therefore, the user's cognitive level

Thanks to the presentation of the results, the professional can get complete quantitative information from the user's results. These results will be presented in graphs or tables which are used to make a diagnosis.

Abilities results in represented as graphs

In this first image, you can see which areas are more developed (in green), the areas with average scores (in yellow), and the most deficient areas (in red), which should get the most attention. If the professional or user clicks on any of the areas, they can see the more in-depth score.

Graphic representation of results compared to the rest of the population
Graphic representation of results compared to the same age range

In the third and fourth images you can see the user's results compared to the rest of their age range. In the form of a Gauss Curve, the scores in the middle of the bell will be the average score.

Evolution of cognitive assessment

With this graph, the professional will be able to see the evolution of the person's cognitive state, depending on the number of sessions. You will be able to see the score on the graph increase after the third session, showing the learning growth on each of the tasks. However, in the following sessions you will see the average scores. This alteration of the scores will be quite common in the user's scores.

References

[1] Conners, C. K. (1989). Manual for Conners’ rating scales. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.

[2] Wechsler, D. (1945). A standardized memory scale for clinical use. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 19(1), 87-95

[3] Korkman, M., Kirk, U., & Kemp, S (1998). NEPSY: A developmental neuropsychological assessment. Psychological Corporation. Korkman, M., Kirk, U., & Kemp, S (1998). Manual for the NEPSY. San Antonio, TX: Psychological corporation.

[4] Tombaugh, T. N. (1996). Test of memory malingering: TOMM. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.

[5] Rey. Schmidt, M. (1994). Rey auditory verbal learning test: a handbook. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

[6] Toglia, J. P. (1993). Contextual memory test. Tucson, AZ: Therapy Skill Builders.

[7] Stroop, J. R (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of experimental psychology, 18(6), 643.

[8] Heaton, R. K. (1981). A manual for the Wisconsin card sorting test. Western Psycological Services.

[9] Shallice, T (1982). Specific impairments of planning. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 298(1089), 199-209.

[10] Hooper, E. H. (1983). Hooper visual organization test (VOT).

[11] Greenberg, L. M., Kindschi, C. L., & Corman, C. L. (1996). TOVA test of variables of attention: clinical guide. St. Paul, MN: TOVA Research Foundation.

[12] Asato, M. R., Sweeney, J. A., & Luna, B (2006). Cognitive processes in the development of TOL performance. Neuropsychologia, 44(12), 2259-2269.

[13]Goh, D. S., & Swerdlik, M. E. (1985). FROSTIG DEVELOPMENTAL TEST OF VISUAL PERCEPTION. Test critiques, 2, 293.

[14] Peretz C, Korczyn AD, Shatil E, Aharonson V, Birnboim S, Giladi N. - Computer-Based, Personalized Cognitive Training versus Classical Computer Games: A Randomized Double-Blind Prospective Trial of Cognitive Stimulation - Neuroepidemiology 2011; 36:91-9.

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